Frank Jackson () formulates the intuition underlying his Jackson, F., , “Epiphenomenal Qualia”, Philosophical Quarterly Epiphenomenalism is the view that mental events are caused by physical Jackson, F. () “Epiphenomenal Qualia”, The Philosophical. The knowledge argument is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article “Epiphenomenal Qualia” () and extended in ” What.

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In Jackson and Jackson he argues that the argument goes wrong in presupposing a false view about sensory experience and that it can be answered by endorsing strong representationalism: Other Internet Resources [Please contact the author with suggestions. On the knowledge argument, Mary acquires knowledge when she leaves the room because she has states with new qualia.

Arguments of that kind are found in Lockwoodchap. The claim that the knowledge intuition entails non necessitation: Martha, “who is highly skilled at visualizing an intermediate shade that she has not experienced between pairs of shades that she has experienced He grants that “Mary knows everything about color vision that can be expressed in the vocabularies of a complete physics, chemistry, and neuroscience,” and then distinguishes between “metaphysical physicalism” and “linguistic physicalism”:.

For replies, see Chalmers, a.

But this same physical information is compatible with two possibilities, a V1 is related by a law, L1, to P1; and b V2 is related by a different law, L2, to P1.

But, as pointed out by Tyethis does not undermine the Ability Hypothesis. Arguments in the Age of Materialism One might have thought that if the mental and the physical are identical, there could be no room for epiphenomenalistic questions to arise.

Therefore, consciousness both qualia and intentional states must have effects in behavior, i. Both may have believed, in a sense the non-phenomenal sense that does not require use of phenomenal concepts that the sky appears blue to normal perceivers while still in their black-and-white environment they may have been told so by their friends.

They presume that epiphenomenalism is to be avoided, and they go to great lengths to try to show that they have avoided incurring that anathema, despite maintaining the sufficiency of physical causation in conjunction with some kind of distinction between the mental and the physical. All proponents of the view point out that, according to their proposal, physical concepts and phenomenal concepts are cognitively independent: Philosophers have also devised ways to reject the knowledge intuition.


If such worlds are possible, we might actually be in such a world, and so the epiphenomenalist can be asked to provide evidence that we are not in such a world. Alexander Staudacher has given a critical discussion of Pauen’s paper.

At least for now, however, the knowledge argument continues to inspire fruitful reflection on the nature of consciousness and its relation to the natural world. The first step is to establish an epistemic gap between the physical and phenomenal domains.

For example, on his view, that water is H2O is metaphysically necessary but a posteriori.


The Dualist View About the Knowledge Argument There has not been much discussion of the knowledge argument from a dualist perspective. The kackson alignment could not be selected for, because if affective valuation had no behavioral effects, misalignment of affective valuation with utility of the causes of the evaluated feelings could not have any behavioral effects either. Also, he can reasonably complain that the objection assumes iackson causal theory of knowledge that is not appropriate for phenomenal knowledge.

These are the properties for which functionalism is most plausible, e.

Most cannot help but admit that “new information or knowledge comes her way after confinement,” enough that this view “deserves to be described as the received physicalist view of the Knowledge Argument. It may appear obvious that premise P1 Mary has complete physical knowledge about human color vision implies C1 Mary knows all the physical facts about human color vision. But then, it seems, S would be making the same utterance whether or not a pain were occurring.

For replies, see Chalmersa and Stoljar forthcoming. Barring neural events that are inexplicably in violation of biological constraints on their conditions of activation, there must be an adequate physical cause of every link in the causal chain leading to behavior. There’s Something About Mary: Yet another related argument is the explanatory argument.

The knowledge argument aims to establish that conscious experience involves non-physical properties. Objections have been raised that have required the argument to be refined.

The argument begins with the claim that there are truths about consciousness that cannot be deduced from the complete physical truth.

Sign in to use this feature. Rules and RepresentationsNew York: For replies, see Chalmersa and Chalmers and Jackson He argued that, since he can clearly and distinctly conceive of his mind without his body and his body without his mind, they can exist without each other and are therefore distinct substances. And most agree that if such creatures are metaphysically possible, then phenomenal consciousness is neither physical nor functional: Since this is an extremely implausible stance, let us take it that P3 does convey knowledge of M.


This latter alignment is independently plausilbe. That the taste of Vegemite has this physical effect is a piece of physical information.

He argues that while staring at something that looks red to her, she would have knowledge of what it is like to see red, even though she lacks the ability to imagine what it is like.

This particular problem has been formulated as an objection against the knowledge argument in Watkins Lycan is led to peiphenomenal similar conclusion within his computational theory. Common causation, they note, can lead to an empirically based denial that one co-effect causes another. Raymont argues that mnemic, recognitional and imaginative abilities neither separately nor conjointly amount to knowing of what it is like to have a particular kind of experience.

References and Further Reading Adams, Robert.

In particular, it does not entitle us to infer that these experiences are not physical events. These imaginations of experiences of a particular kind can be used to refer to experiences of the kind at issue and to think about them. Jackson wants qualia to be epiphenomenal. He has a throwaway joke line about quqlia OU broadcasting in Black and White but could Mary really learn everything factual epiphehomenal colour experience without having colour experiences herself.?

Frank Jackson, Epiphenomenal qualia – PhilPapers

An object’s being a pump is a consequence of its parts having the properties they have and standing in the relations in which they stand. Schematically, suppose physical event P1 causes both mental event M and physical successor Epiphenomenxl, as in Figure 1.

Taylor, and subsequent editions, offers a representative statement.