A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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The language was widely spoken in what is now northern Syria, northern Iraq, and southeast Turkey, and by the end of the sixteenth century BC, the kings of Mittani gramar united most Hurrian cities under their control. In the indicative this suffix is mandatory, but in all other moods it is optional. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. In Woodard, Roger D.

Another special form is only found in the dialect of Hattusha. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.

Hurrian language – Wikipedia

The marker -t- in position 4 may indicate intransitivity in non-present tenses. The two languages simply have a common source.

Hurrian contains many expressions that denote spatial and abstract relations and serve as adpositionsmost of them built on the dative and genitive cases. These elements are not all obligatory, and in fact a noun can occur as a single root followed by nothing except zero-suffixes for case and number. Tense markers are unchanged in the optative. Most of them remain unedited as of The earliest known document is a royal inscription dated shortly before BC though Hurrian words and names appear in earlier documentsand the last known texts date from the late fourteenth century BC.

The f of the genitive and dative endings merges with a preceding p or t giving pp and tt respectively, e. The following table gives the attested forms of the personal pronouns, omitting those that cannot be determined.


Between the suffix of the dependent noun and the case ending comes the article, which agrees with the referent in number, for example, with an adjective:. In the Old Hurrian of Hattusha the ending of the third person singular was -m.

There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence.

There are also the relative pronouns iya and iye. It is generally grammmar that the speakers of Hurrian originally came from the Armenian mountains and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login.

Hurrian language

Keep Exploring Britannica Education. Essive [7] [8] in, at The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian. The final vowel of the noun stem is dropped before an attached possessive pronoun, e. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The potential form is also occasionally used to express a wish. Its ending is -iliaand this participle can undergo Suffixaufnahme.

The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. For example case markers more than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The enclitic particles can be attached to any word in a sentence, but most often they are attached to the first phrase of the sentence or to the verb.

The table below outlines the possible forms:. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Distributive numbers carry the suffix -atee.

In the next position, the suffix of negation can occur; in transitive sentences, it is -wawhereas in intransitive and antipassive ones it is -kkV. Hurrian uses both enclitic and independent personal pronouns. One of these, the equative casehas a different form in both of the main dialects.


By the late Bronze Age, Hurrian seems to have become extinct, except perhaps for remote mountainous areas east of the hyrrian Tigris. In the Caucasus region that centres on Lake Van, Hurrian of the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce was replaced by the related Urartian language in the 1st millennium. This grammmar hundreds of years after the last Hufrian documents disappear, but Urartian is closer to Old Hurrian, rather than the later version of the language, so it is not a descendent of Hurrian.

While the absolutive pronoun clitics 10 attached to a noun are not necessarily connected to it syntactically, typically designating the hurrlan or intransitive subject of a nearby verb, the third plural pronoun clitic -lla can be used to signal the plural of the host noun hudrian the absolutive.

The anaphoric marker 7 is formally identical to the article and anchors frammar Suffixaufnahme suffixes 8 and 9. After the derivational suffix come those grammad tense. The language is also strongly ergative.

The eastern territory was gradually taken over by Assyria, which moved Hurrians out and settled Assyrians in their place, but in the west, Hurrian cultic traditions and learning were preserved by the Hittites who introduced them into their capital at Hattusa in Anatolia. Short consonants are written Another Hurrian dialect is likely represented in several texts from Ugarit, but they are so poorly preserved that little can be said about them, save that spelling patterns used elsewhere to represent Hurrian phonemes are virtually ignored in them.

Hurrian also has several demonstrative pronouns: The direct object and intransitive subject, when they are not represented by an independent noun, are expressed through the use of clitics, or pronouns see below.