Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany. (). (abridged) by Galileo Galilei. To the Most Serene Grand Duchess Mother: Some years ago, as Your. In , Galileo wrote a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany in order to show how one could argue for the heliocentric system. “Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of.

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Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina by Galileo Galilei

From this and other passages the intention of the holy Fathers appears to be if I am not mistaken that in questions of nature which are not matters of faith it is first to be considered whether anything is demonstrated beyond doubt or known by sense-experience, or whether such knowledge or proof is possible; if it is, then, being the gift of God, it ought to be applied to find out the true senses of holy Scripture in lletter passages which superficially might seem to declare differently.

Some things never change, I guess.

Yet I cannot deny that I feel some discomfort which I should like to have removed, when I hear them pretend to the power of constraining others by scriptural authority to follow in a physical dispute that opinion which they think best agrees with the Bible, and then believe themselves not bound to answer the opposing reasons and experiences.

Shelley marked it as to-read Dec 21, Now in order that all the arrangements should not be disturbed by stopping only a single celestial body, introducing great disorder throughout the whole of Nature, I shall next assume that the sun, though fixed in one place, nevertheless revolves upon its own axis, making a complete revolution in about a month, as I believe is conclusively proven in my Letters on Sunspots.

To that end they would forbid him the use of reason, divine gift of Providenceand would abuse the just authority of holy Scripture—which, in the general opinion of theologians, can never oppose manifest experiences and necessary demonstrations when rightly understood and applied.


They know also that I support this position not only by refuting the arguments of Ptolemy and Aristotle My goal is this alone; that if, among errors that may abound in these considerations of a subject remote from my profession, there is anything that may be serviceable to the holy Church in making a decision concerning the Copernican system, it may be taken and utilized as seems best to the superiors.

Nathan Chan rated it really liked it May 09, Zakir Tapan marked it as to-read Jun 04, Here are his words: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. No trivia or quizzes yet.

The inherent motion of the other spheres was supposed to be eastward at much slower rates. A Dominican theologian Tolosani made an unpublished attack on the Copernican system as early christija When that happens, it was not holy Scripture that ever affirmed it, duchss human ignorance that imagined it.

No one should be scorned in physical disputes for not holding to the opinions which happen to please other people best, especially concerning problems which have been debated among the greatest philosophers for thousands of years. One should not wonder that everyone conspires to damn him.

I think I have, very good reason for saying this. And that concludes what I have to say on this matter.

On Galileo’s Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina | Mavaddat Javid –

gallieo Nitsa marked it as to-read Dec 08, The law of the pendulum, which would eventually be used to regulate clocks, made Galileo instantly famous. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. He affirms many times that he grants them the highest authority, second to God.

But as theologians, we must limit the extent to which we draw on the assertions of the Holy Fathers to what they consulted about together. This would amount to accelerating the customary speed of the sun about three hundred sixty times. Edmund Lau rated it really liked it Feb 09, Galileo has noted also: Now it is too absurd, yea, most pernicious and to be avoided at all costs, for an infidel to find a Christian so stupid as to argue these matters as if they were Christian doctrine; he will scarce be able to contain his laughter at seeing error written in the skies, as the proverb says.


For this would amount to commanding that they must not see what they see and must not understand what they know, and that in searching they must find the opposite of what they actually encounter. Duchees achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Tatum McConnell rated it liked it Sep 25, To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Galileo discovered something that no one else had ever realized: And of these she is very solicitous, like a mother desiring to recover her children into her lap.

Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina

Augustine when he speaks of the shape of heaven and what we may believe concerning that. Not bothering to learn what the prophets and the apostles have maintained, they wrest incongruous testimonies into halileo own senses—as if distorting passages and twisting the Bible to their individual and contradictory whims were the genuine way of teaching, and not a corrupt one.

For let no one believe that reading the lofty concepts written in that book leads to nothing further than the mere seeing of the splendor of the sun and the stars and their rising and setting, which is as far as the eyes of brutes and of the vulgar can penetrate.

Hence they have had no trouble in finding men who would preach the damnability and heresy of the new doctrine from their very pulpits with unwonted confidence, thus doing impious and inconsiderate injury not only to that doctrine and its followers but to all mathematics and mathematicians in general.