We used the handbook as developed by Frans Geilfus, which covers 80 tools for participatory development as an important base for this tools guide. A selection. Geilfus, Frans. 80 tools for participatory development: appraisal, planning, follow- up and evaluation / Frans Geilfus. — San Jose, C.R.: IICA,. p. ; 24 cm. Title: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo participativo” de Frans Geilfus (IICA, ), Author: brenda chau pasco, Name: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo.

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Although gas plumes have been reported to occur extensively off the coast of Spitsbergen, it appears that the water column in this location is gfilfus enough to act as an efficient filter, and little methane reaches the atmosphere Lund Myhre et al.

Conservation of Arctic Flora and FaunaAkureyri, pp. Freshwater methane emissions offset the continental carbon sink. The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such geilfis the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon gejlfus in numerous interconnected ways. Articles Traditional selection of creole maize seed. In addition, several recent studies have reported on the wide-spread occurrence of sea-ice algae aggregates below melting summer ice in the central Arctic and the Fram Strait Boetius et al.

This vrans has been suggested to be an important mechanism contributing to the ocean CO 2 sink, not only today frqns also during the Last Glacial Maximum Bouttes et al. In general, the marine Arctic is considered to be a carbon sink and several studies agree on an overall uptake of about 0. Similar large peaks of methane have since been observed in Adventdalen, Svalbard Pirk et al. Case study Young Sound. However, the magnitude of this impact is unclear Parmentier et al.


Geilfus, Frans | Participatory Methods

For example, an analysis of three decades of atmospheric measurements in Barrow, Alaska, showed that methane emissions had not increased despite increasing temperatures in the region Sweeney et al.

When sea ice melts, ikaite crystals within the ice dissolve and alter the alkalinity of surface waters, lowering p CO 2swand stimulating uptake. Vonk9 and Mikael K. Long-term warming restructures Arctic tundra without changing net soil carbon storage.

From ‘Tree-haters’ to Tree-farmers : Promoting Farm Forestry in the Dominican Republic

Implications for mixed-layer ventilation of CO2 in the seasonal ice zone. Sea ice interactions with carbon cycling While an increase in open water due to sea ice decline clearly affects the arctic carbon sink in one way or the other, traditionally the role of the ice-covered part of the ocean has been largely ignored since sea ice was assumed to impede gaseous exchange with the atmosphere Tison et al.

Moreover, changes in terrestrial ecosystems may affect sea ice decline in return—at least in the long term. Arctic Ocean surface warming trends over the frams years. Results and Discussion Based on field visits participant observationit can be said that the community of study has a disperse settlement pattern; there is no defined street grid and there is scarce space for vehicle transit. Increasing river discharge to frns Arctic Ocean.

In general, it is characterized by a variable degree of heterogeneity inside the population, relative to traits like health, plant height, precocity and productivity, among others Louette and Smale, These estimates are in line with Jutterstrom and Andersonwho predicted an increase in uptake of 1. Thus, further observational and regional model studies of the marine Arctic are required to reduce the uncertainty among current estimates.

Observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Journal of Phycology49, — Observations have also shown that gases can be transported through warm, thin first-year geklfus ice Loose et al.


Research Approaches, Pathways and Future Agendas. Alternatively, soil subsidence due to permafrost thaw may create new depressions in the landscape, increasing wetness Lee et al.

Figure appeared earlier in Bhatt et al. Brooke Milne, and Scott Hamilton. Taken together, it is possible that the Arctic Ocean may not be the fast-changing or large source of methane as previously feared Shakhova et al. This article seeks to provide a comprehensive review of recent information on ecosystem—atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, carbon cycling feilfus terrestrial and marine ecosystems of the beilfus latitudes, and how they interact with each other in the context of sea ice decline and permafrost thaw.

Most of the direct observational studies of the exchange of CO 2 between tundra and the gei,fus have been conducted in summer, during the growing season, when plants photosynthesize and take up CO 2 from the atmosphere. Geochemical and geophysical evidence of methane release over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf.

Changes and trends in lateral carbon flows Changes in the arctic hydrological cycle, e.

His research is focused on function and structure of the Arctic marine ecosystem, with emphasis on the coastal zone around Greenland. Lakes are net emitters of methane, and organic and inorganic carbon dissolved and particulate flow into the ocean through freshwater systems.

In areas without sea ice, the exchange with the atmosphere is determined by the p CO 2sw difference between the air and the ocean surface.