Title, Evolution by gene duplication. Author, Susumu Ohno. Edition, illustrated. Publisher, Springer-Verlag, Original from, the University of Michigan. Title, Evolution by Gene Duplication. Author, Susumu Ohno. Edition, illustrated. Publisher, Allen & Unwin, ISBN, , The genome of S. cerevisiae is characterized by a high genetic redundancy which can largely be attributed to a whole genome duplication event (Ohno, ;.

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Contents Front Matter i—viii Stanley D.

Apparently it was an exciting challenge for both of them, and Ohno moved to the institution where he was to spend his entire highly productive career.

Sex-linkage of GPD in the horse and donkey. X-chromosome behavior in germ and somatic cells of Rattus norvegicus.

Susumu Ohno

Thus, he recognized that this DNA could serve as a powerful means by which new genes or new functions of old genes could be created. Page Share Cite. He then weighed the cutout chromosomes showing in this way that whether there were 17 pairs of chromosomes as in the creeping vole, Microtus oregoni, or 84 pairs as in the black rhinoceros, the amount of chromosomal material was the same. The end result would be the same as under the DDC model, two functionally specialised genes paralogs.

Evolution of new functions de novo and from preexisting genes.

His father was entitled to maintain both an automobile and a horse on his property, and he normally traveled to his office on horseback.

Had evolution been entirely dependent upon natural selection, from a bacterium only numerous forms of bacteria would have emerged.

Evolution by gene duplication

His dupkication of animals, particularly of horses, proved to be one of the most pervasive influences in his life. By escaping, it accumulated formerly forbidden mutations to emerge as a new gene locus.


This phenomenon is understood to be an important source of novelty in evolution, providing for an expanded repertoire of molecular activities. Here his abilities as an experimentalist complemented his deep biologic insights and led him to a discovery that was to influence our understanding of genetic mechanisms. Although their romance flourished in a society in which, at the time, arranged marriages were common, they did not marry in Japan.

After several such copies have been made, and are also passed on to descendent bacterial cells, a few of these copies might accumulate mutations that eventually will lead to a side-activity becoming the main activity. The youngest son lives in Las Vegas, where he works as a croupier. Gene dosage effects after duplication can also be harmful to a cell and the duplication might therefore be selected against.

He indicated that mammalian X vene are conserved among species; [3] it has been referred to as Ohno’s law. Ohno undertook to write three monographs in which he developed his shsumu ideas about chromosomes and sex determination.

Evolution by gene duplication – Susumu Ohno – Google Books

Molecular evolution Molecular genetics Mutation. According to DDC, this ssumu of neutral drift may eventually lead to the complementary retention of sub-functions distributed over the two gene copies. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This monograph dealt with the evolution of the X and the Y chromosomes in mammals and the Z and W chromosomes in avian and ophidian species. Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes. Although each model can explain certain aspects of the evolutionary process, the relative importance of each aspect is still unclear. Views Read Edit View history.


He wanted to attend veterinary school. A classic view, owing to Susumu Ohno[1] which is known as Ohno model, he explains how duplication creates redundancy, the redundant copy accumulates beneficial mutations which provides fuel for innovation.

Of his siblings Susumu was the only one to leave Japan; all of his brothers and his sister lived their entire lives on the Japanese islands. For instance, when the metabolic network within a cell is fine-tuned so that it can only tolerate a certain amount of a certain gene product, gene duplication would offset this balance [ citation needed ]. The Evolution of Darwin by Esther Solondz”. Functional divergence between the duplicate genes is another possible fate. Gene conversion Gene duplication Silent mutation Synonymous substitution.

All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February When beginning his work at the City of.

Susumo Ohno | Biographical Memoirs: V | The National Academies Press

Since it was known that in insects heterochromatin was genetically bene, this suggested independently to a number of evolutikn that one of the two mammalian female chromosomes might be genetically inactive. Nevertheless, veterinary school it was, and Ohno received a D. The third volume dealt in greater detail with sex determination. He has thought at least half of the thoughts that form the basis of the work being carried out all over the world in respect to genetic analysis.

Chromosomal constitution in glucosephosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency.