EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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In the same artiflcio, Janet Murray published her famous Hamlet on the Holodeck by using the work of Brenda Laurel as a reference in which she analyzes the digital environment — mainly, software design — as a space, a medium of creating virtual theater works whose main basis consists of the Aristotelian structure.

However, the field of Tolkienian fiction does not appear are by the adoption of certain stories, but rather encompasses a much larger space, full of cohesive gaps — we assume there is a monetary, legal system, etc. Here we find gaming classics such as Tetris or Space Invaders, in which the sequence of levels never ends, while the speed of the enemies progressively increases.

Each one of these iterations is composed by different actions, states and finally, conclusions: And, on the other hand, in what position is the freedom of man regarding the determinism of a possible world chosen by strict rationality? It must be kept in mind that games — the battles, the popular games — are historically linked to developing rituals that unite society1 Agamben,p.

Artifiio from Leibnizian ideas of God and the best of all possible worlds, Lewis delves into the motives that designate our world as real, compared to all others. Celia Pearce, sometimes defined as a narratologist, denied any interest in the polarization of the debate and even the core of the conflict: In this way, games as social events set ritual calendars. Today, we have both a great variety of devices — coom consoles, computers, phones and tablets — as well as genres and target audiences.

Leibniz suffered the ridicule of his rationalist colleagues for his reflections on possible worlds and the existence of God. Written between and and published in three volumes, the saga tells the stories of a group of heroes that must accompany Frodo, a hobbit from the Shire, on a quasi-suicidal mission: Esta perspectiva de Shklovski del artificio empatiza mucho con la postura And, amid the academic conflict between Ludology and Narratology, the Possible Worlds Theory has been gaining a foothold as a valid methodology for analyzing fictional worlds of video games.

This structure already appears intuitively among philosophers addressing alternative realities to our own, and it takes on a special meaning when we refer to an autonomous and meaningful space in its own right.

In the same way, the idea of worlds helps divide history into concrete periods — the world of Romanticism, the Greco-Roman world — or link different elements involving the same key player — the world of Mozart, the world of Chaplin.


Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

We know the extent of Middle Earth from the travels cpmo the Fellowship of the Ring, and the racial conflicts from the relationships between characters. Although from the basis of composability all fictional worlds should be coherent, postmodernity and contemporary textual practices are demonstrating that we can coexist with worlds that surpass the unique and authenticated story. Arcades3, coin- operated games located in recreation aarte, which experienced their golden age between andentailed an authentic revolution.

The second proposed form is called Enacted Narrative p. Can video games tell stories? In this pair of modal statements, the problem of existence is twofold. The cybertext is a perspective that is used for dynamic texts, i.

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As a result, Schaeffer proposes three broad types of relations when speaking of mimesis. Also, if we assume humans reason like God Aguado Rebollo,pp. Ryan calls this the principle of minimal departure Marie-Laure Ryan,pp. Thus, for example, we can feign sadness by verbally communicating and relying snklovski clear physiological symptoms, such as crying or body language. A conceitualidade do livro em First, and in comparison to the technicism of the diegesis concept, the idea of worlds refers to an easily assimilated mental construction by both authors and readers or viewers by establishing a measure of anthropocentric scale.

First, something cannot be possible and impossible at the same time and, second, something cannot be neither possible nor impossible — that is, it must necessarily adhere to one of these two categories.

In this way, the modal statement remains subject, in its coml or falsity, to the present, regardless of how we determine what is actual from possibilist or actualist positions. Moreover, these great fictional stories occasionally overcome boundaries suggested by the author himself by producing completely different pragmatic-discursive frameworks: In this way, we consider that fiction, as ludic and shared pretense, must be located in a hybrid and integrated position between both stances.

The author gives the example of the game Myst, which from a subjective point of view, the player must explore the objects in the environment.

In this context of audiovisual technological fascination, the first automated and proto-interactive gaming machines emerged. This concept has been useful in the field of both literary and cinematic Narratology, not only to explain the internal coherence of stories, but in particular to determine where it is being told, whether from outside of the universe — the extradiegetic space — or from an internal narrative authority that reveals a second discourse — the intradiegetic space.

Thus, enormous stores full of gaming machines emerged, where a user could, against payment, interact with them and play.

Addressing the world from its own semantics involves overcoming the formalist and structuralist framework of the study of texts and, by extension, its history, while allowing a new approach on the matter of fictional truth, referentiality and the potential of fiction at the transmedia level. On the other hand, the intriguee — the closest entity to the traditional reader — is not only the main objective of the intriguant but also is the essence of the fictional world itself, since, without him, there is no game.

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These constructs, especially those related to political and social thought, are essential for understanding our reality as immediate, just as they are involved in our daily choices. Some games do have narrative aspirations.

Instead, it is placed on the so-called non-fiction level, while a photograph may occupy either level according to its purpose. As Aguado Rebollo notespp. Thus, this perspective studies the physical and symbolic systems between the player and the world and vice versa, the internal leaps between different fictional levels and the sporadic and extraordinary disruptions to fictional boundaries that some characters may undergo.

Under this conception and using Huizinga and Callois as references, Collantes establishes a categorization of video games as narrative experiences in function of their reference or not to another world: The first issue that must be explained is essentially terminological, since it refers to what must be understood by Narratology and Ludology. He purports to be talking about characters who are known to him, and whom he refers to, typically, by means of their ordinary proper names.

viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer

However, the hegemony of the argument soon declined upon the confirmation that, in reality, much of the ideological persuasion did not consist of the mere fictionalization of reality, but rather the intensive use of rhetoric focused on manipulation and deception: At first, God contemplates monads4, small and irreducible metaphysical atoms and, from them, what is possible.

Therefore, possibilism admits possible but non-existent worlds and objects. As a result, Lewis does not try to evaluate if fictional worlds exist in the same way that other possible worlds do Rosen,p. In reality, narrative is a possible way of expanding a fictional world with the support of different mediums: Regardless of whether the viewer decides to take the third option as the authentic one — for the cinematographic happy end — the truth is that the three stories configure an incoherent fictional world: What is more, the history of fiction is a history of social discredit.

Of all these cited properties, only A, B and F are essential by having a fixed value, while C, D and G are incidental to their mutable value.

For example, we shall return to the case of the popular saga, Matrix. Ludofictional worlds inherit the fictional worlds of literature and film regarding their fictional content, but they are completely different concerning their proactive and transformative ability regarding the user.