Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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In case the water table does not rise up to full height of retaining wall, this will result in a situation where the soil is partially submerged and partly dry. The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts. Let the intensity of surcharge load per unit area be w.

For surcharged walls b may vary between 0. Walls of a building Simulation. The pressure distribution is triangular.

In addition, it should be ensured that no tension is developed at the base i. The lateral pressure imposed by this load does not vary with the height and is uniform. When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. Cantilever Retaining Walls Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering Kok Kwang Phoon Sometimes the cantilever wall is constructed in the form of L.

The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base. The overturning moment countedfort stabilized by the weight of wall and the weight of the soil above the heel slab the weight of soil over the toe is neglected. Retaininng meet this requirement the resultant of the sum of all vertical forces and the horizontal active pressure should counterrort the base of the wall within the middle third.


Besides loads due to retained material, the retaining wall may also be subjected to surcharged load due to automobile, rail road etc.

Wall retaining submerged backfill: Design of One Way Slabs. It is a common practice to neglect the passive resistance of the soil in front of the toe of the wall in this check.

Prior to start of structural design of a retaining wall it is necessary to adopt some tentative dimensions for different components of the wall.

If the requirements of stability are not satisfied, its dimension should be revised. Structural Reliability Analysis and Design. How well do we dounterfort what we are doing?

The wall consists of three components, i the stem, ii the toe, and iii the heel. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Wall retaining submerged backfill. Hence total lateral earth pressure at the base of wall is given by. Due to buoyancy the weight of submerged soil will be less and its repose will also be much less. These walls are constructed in brick masonry, stone masonry or plain coumterfort concrete and it is shown in Fig. The pressure thus developed is termed as soil earth pressure.

Counterfort retaining wall | architecture |

The retaining wall should be stable enough to resist all type of forces acting on it. Reliability—based design applied to retaining. The material retained by the wall is generally known as backfill. The stability of the wall is partially provided by the weight of earth on the heel. From This Paper Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.

Wall retaining back-fill in slope: Retaining walls are structures constructed retaijing the purpose of retaining earth or other materials like coal, ore, water etc. Design of Two-way Slabs. If the water table is such that the retained soil remain fully submerged, in such a case the saturated soil results in increasing the weight of the backfill, decreases the angle of wa,l of the soil which ultimately amounts to increase in pressure on the wall.


References Publications referenced by this paper. The wall is so proportioned that the dead weight of the wall provides required stability against the thrust exerted by the backfill including surcharge if any. Based on these dimensions the wall is checked for stability checked for overturning, sliding and maximum pressure at toe and in case the stability requirements are satisfied, structural design of different wall components is taken up.


Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Wall retaining backfill in slope. It is also assumed that the retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil by sufficient amount so that the soil expands and evokes full shearing resistance and attains state of plastic equilibrium. The pressure mainly depends upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall.

The size of the wall is so kept that there is no tensile stress developed at any section of the wall under any condition of loading.

This buttressed wall is identical to a counterfort retaining wall with the main difference that the vertical brackets are provided in front of the wall on face opposite to the face retaining back fill as shown in Fig.