Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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Why is it that sweet wine and unmixed wine and mead aristotlee 12 if drunk from time to time during a drinking bout make men more sober? Birds and 1 Cp.

Problems, Volume I — Aristotle, Robert Mayhew | Harvard University Press

If the secretion be thin and full of air, when the breath finds its way out the desire ceases just as the ariatotle in boys and older persons some times ceases without the discharge of any moisture ; 2 and the same thing happens, if the moisture dries up.

Is it in order that there may be no disturbance when the excretions 3 are being altered by such changes? Farquharson on de Incess. These also therefore intensify and stop diseases and bring them to a crisis and arisgotle them, as 1 i, e.

Or is it because all respiration arisyotle exception takes 1 Cp. Is it 4 because the composition of their body has become full of 25 moisture, and the semen is fertile not when it is liquid but when it has body and consistency?

This article about a philosophy -related book is a stub. For anything which, though small in bulk, owing to its excessive heat or cold is unconcocted and of such a nature as to overcome, prpblemata not be overcome by, animal heat, if it is easily dissolved in 30 the two stomachs, is a drug.

Is it because the desire for most things is necessary and its non-satisfaction is sometimes fatal to life, but sexual desires proceed from something 10 beyond mere necessity? Some critics would date its completion as late as the fifth or sixth century A.

Also they rub their hands together and bend and stretch themselves and keep jumping up and can never remain still ; for they are eager for action, because the heat within them is collected in the region of the chest, 15 which is one problemaha the more substantial parts of the body, and provlemata Cp.

Or is it because these parts become overheated and waste away most, and sexual intercourse operates through heat, and those parts are most heated which are moved in the act 5 of coition?

In like manner walking uphill is a greater exertion and tends more aristorle cause thinness than walking downhill. This then is an external disturbance, while that caused by wine is internal ; but there is no real difference, the effect being the same whatever the cause of the disturbance.

This probJem is referred to by Plutarch Quaest. The moisture then, being cut off, collects, and when the breath is relaxed comes all out at once. Or is it because in running we come into collision with the air, and, when this happens, we have a more acute 20 perception of the air owing to the movement? Is it because if we are not in a turgid state, we are in the condition of plants torn up from the earth with which something which does not belong to them is torn up also, or of which some part is torn off and left in the ground?


Does it cool it because the heat is expelled in coition? For in winter we are in a better condition for concoction and at the very height of our health, 3 so that naturally illnesses which arise from more serious causes are them- 20 selves more serious and more likely to prove fatal.

This breath, therefore, is drawn down, making him quiver, as it were dragging at him beneath by its movement, and leaves him little control over the most distant part of his body in this case over his heels. Why is it that men feel heavier and weaker when the 24 wind is in the south? Is it because something must be drawn out from unclean sores, and it is foreign moisture which must be extracted?

Problems, Volume I

For this reason also couches and seats which yield to pressure are less fatiguing than those which do not do so. For the preference of bronze or copper over iron in antiquity, see Dr. G This second question and the suggested solution are repeated in chapter 25, and the two passages can aristootle emended from one another. And what has been said generally as to the effect of the seasons applies also in detail ; for changes of winds and of age and of locality are to some extent 20 changes of season.


When therefore south winds blow without bringing rain, they engender this condition 4 in us, whereas, when they bring rain with them, the rain 1 Kavaos is the remittent bilious fever which is epidemic in the Levant ; cp. Furthermore un- 1 This problem is more fully treated in chapter 6. The digital Loeb Classical Library extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature.

In those, therefore, who take no 15 measures to induce perspiration the pores become closed up, whereas if they do take such measures the pores are kept open. Or must we reject this explanation, since, if iron takes a better edge, the cleavage is easier and less painful? But those who are effeminate by nature are so constituted that little or no semen is secreted where it is secreted by those who are in a natural state, 8 but it collects in this part of the body.

Buy This Book in Print. Why is it that those who faint and those who collapse 2 30 after physical exertion are generally held to become smaller in bulk and their voices shriller? The latter gives better sense and should be read in both passages. Also in sickness physicians order the feet in particular to be wrapped up, because they are especially susceptible to cold and so readily give rise to 86g a cold in the rest of the body also. Is it because the latter, though they are hot, are also dry for this is the natural condition of a manwhereas children are hot and moist?


Why are short walks fatiguing? For as the rain, if it comes down upon the earth in torrents, runs to waste, but, if it comes down in small quantities, merely moistens the ground ; 2 so the same thing occurs in fever patients. Furthermore sweet wine is odourless, but bitter wine is not, and any odour oppresses the head. Nor again do we give the name of drugs to those TO substances which are not purgative through their natural qualities ; for indeed many foods have the effect of drugs, if taken in sufficient quantity milk, for example, and olive oil 2 and unfermented wine ; all these things, because they are not easily concocted, have a purgative effect on those by whom they are not easily concocted.

It is rather the inner parts of the body which should be 5 submitted to this process ; for, because they are remote, it is impossible to produce perspiration from them except by violent effort, but it is easy to produce it from the chest because it is near the surface. Those on the other hand who are phlegmatic are afflicted with sore throats and catarrh of the lungs. That this is so is shown by the fact that the hollow parts of the body perspire continually. The collection, gradually assembled by the peripatetic schoolreached its final form anywhere between the third century BC to the 6th century AD.

Now fondness for drink is due to a desire for moisture ; and so their moist condition prevents children from being thirsty, for desire implies a lack of something. In eunuchs the legs swell and the bowels are easily relaxed, which shows that the moisture has moved downwards. For the whole body becomes a burden ; and so the part upon which it all rests and with which we raise it that is, the legs feels the strain most. Is it because each form of excretion has a region in which it is naturally secreted and, when an effort is made, the breath in finding its way b out causes the excretion to swell and expels it ; for example, urine collects in the bladder, food from which the moisture has been extracted in the bowels, tears in the eyes, mucous matter in the nostrils, and blood in the veins?

arlstotle Why is it that in the winter perspiration is given off less 42 freely and we do not feel the same desire to induce it, although our bodies are moister in the winter? Those then whose 3 flesh is solid do not allow of much excretion.