Get this from a library! Alkoxysilanes and the consolidation of stone. [George Wheeler; Getty Conservation Institute.]. Stone is one of the oldest building materials, and its conservation ranks as one of the most challenging in the field. The use of alkoxysilanes in the conservation. Permalink: ; Title: Alkoxysilanes and the consolidation of stone / George Wheeler ; with annotated bibliography by.

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Larson reported that two sculptures in the Museum Bernini’s ‘Neptune and Triton’ 62 Sculpture, Carrara marble; 12th century English Sculpture, Caen stone were consolidated successfully with T.

Following final application of the consolidant, excessive material should be washed immediately with a cleaning solvent ftx m the masonry surface in order to prevent a possible surface discoloration. It has been used for centuries to treat limestone. Recent Experiments with Alkoxysilanes in Stone Consolidation 56 3.

Alkoxysilanes and the consolidation of stone

Therefore, in contrast to brittie paraffin waxes, microcrystalline waxes have good plasticity and adhesion. It is a consklidation of a series of processes which include diagnosis, cleaning, preconsolidation, consolidation, surface protection, and maintenance.

Zinsmeister, Conservation of Natural Stone: Cancel Forgot your password? Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. As is obvious from the preceding discussion, controversial results have been obtained from different research and experiments regarding the use of alkoxysilanes for the conservation of earthen building materials.

A penetration depth of up to 25 cm. Repeated applications of limewater are necessary to produce sufficient calcium carbonate for consolidation, due to the low water solubility of calcium hydroxide.

Your rating has been recorded. It should not have deleterious chemical or physical interactions with the stone which can form harmful by-products such 27 as soluble salts.

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Calcium Hydroxide Limewater 6 1. Building Research Establishment,p.

Alkoxysilanes and the Consolidation of Stone

comsolidation Field trials do not provide much information in the short term about the preservative effect of the treatment; nevertheless, they are valuable for the practical experience they provide. Citations are based on reference standards. Not only consolidant itself, but also the consolidztion of application has an influence on the effectiveness of a consolidation treatment.

Getty Conservation Institute, After treatment with the Wacker system, the reattachment of detached flakes were said to be possible by using an acrylic resin. Besides employing catalysts and solvents, some other factors also influence the polymerization rate such as the type of the hydrocarbon group methyl, ethyl,etc. The evaporation of liquid monomer has also been found to be RH dependent.

It seems that the formation of cracks is related to polymerization temperature. Choosing the right application method very much depends on the type of surface to be consolidated, the porosity of the material and its dimension.

Alkoxysilanes and the consolidation of stone (Book, ) []

Control of other surface conditions for example, surface and air temperatures, wind and sun exposure is essential for proper performance of an alkoxysilane. This volume, the first to comprehensively cover od in stone consolidation, synthesizes the subject’s vast and extensive literature, which ranges from production of alkoxysilanes in the nineteenth century to the extensive contributions from sol-gel science in consolidstion s and s. The network polymer that first forms is a soft gel; the gel shrinks and becomes harder; the shrinkage continues and it changes into a hard, brittie glass; in the end, it shrinks to small, glassy particles or crumbles alkoxysolanes a fine powder.

It is this silicic acid that is considered responsible for the consolidation of stone. Controversy in the publications over the use of alkoxysilanes on stone and adobe conservation might partially result from the lack of research and an incomplete understanding of the complexity of alkoxysilane chemistry.


Performance Criteria 26 2. These salts are deposited by winds carrying small droplets of sea water.

Current literature includes an increasing number of case studies where alkoxysilanes have been used as consolidants. The number of applications and the waiting time between cycles or applications can vary for different products, therefore each product should be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

It was said that preconsolidation carried out with the same mixture can allow consopidation cleaning by using solvents, such as acetone and toluene. In another application method, monomers either pure or dissolved in a solvent are polymerized in the pores of the stone after the solution has penetrated into the stone. Bulk infiltration was used in combination with surface application of consolidant by brushing. When too much solvent is used, evaporation will draw the acrylic copolymer back to the stone’s surface forming a hard crust; when too little solvent or an improper solvent which evaporates too quickly is used, the acrylic copolymer will not penetrate deeply into the stone.

Thereforc, they are usually dissolved in organic solvents to reduce the viscosity. The name field is required. However, this treatment was reported to produce a whitening effect, if not properly applied. These factors will be discussed in Chapter 2.